Posted on February 8th, 2012 by admin
Israel , long shaped the State of Israel , respectively, in Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל ( Yisra’el ) and מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל ( Medinat Yisra’el ), in Arabic إسرائيل ( Isra’il ) and , is a democracy type parliamentary the Middle East located on the east coast of the Mediterranean . It proclaimed its independence on 14 May 1948 , after the vote of the Partition Plan of Palestine by the UN .
Israel has established its capital in Jerusalem , but this choice is not recognized by the international community. Tel Aviv is the center of diplomatic, economic and financial of the country.
Israel is the only state in the world where the population is predominantly Jewish (75.5%). The non-Jewish population is as follows: Arabs (20.4%), Druze (1.8%) 4 , Samaritans, Bedouins, etc.. 5
Since 1948, the State of Israel is involved in several armed conflicts with neighboring Arab countries and / or non-state organizations.
Summary [ hide ]
The first mention of Israel appears on the stele of Merneptah to 1200 BC. BC The stele has a hymn celebrating the peace between Egypt and Merneptah of Canaan :
“Canaan was raided in the worst way. Ashkelon has been removed. Gezer has been captured. Yeno’am is as if it had not existed. Israel is laid waste, its seed no longer exists. Huru became a widow because of Egypt … ”
- Stele of Merneptah.
Israel appears as a people of Canaan who lived in a part of the West Bank Central.
Biblical tradition relates the origin of the name in the book of Genesis , when the third of the Hebrew patriarchs , Jacob is renamed Israel (He who struggles with God 6 or “God is strong, God overcomes 7 ” ) after fighting with an angel of God. Jacob is considered the father of twelve tribes that came out of Egypt , made the biblical nation is known as the ” children of Israel “or” Israelites “.
As agreed in the declaration of independence , the modern state established in 1948 has taken the name Israel , rejecting other possible names Zion and Judah 8 , and its citizens are called Israelis .
Main article: History of Israel .
The history of this state is part of Jewish history and the continuity of the history of Zionism . Its independence is seen by its founders as the implementation of the promises of the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the partition plan of Palestine voted by the UN 29 November 1947.
The early years of the country are marked by the arrival of the survivors of the Holocaust and large waves of Jewish immigration from many countries around the world, particularly refugees from Arab countries and from the 1970s, Jews of the Soviet Union .
The Land of Israel in Antiquity
Main article: History of Jews in the Land of Israel .
The capture of Jerusalem and the temple represented on the triumphal arch in Rome.
The Land of Israel , called ” Eretz Yisrael “in Hebrew, is considered the sacred land of the Jewish people since Biblical times. According to the Torah , the Land of Israel was promised to the three patriarchs of the Jewish people by God, as a Jewish homeland. The historians place this time around the beginning of the second millennium BC 9 According to the Bible, the first Israelite kingdoms and states are accordingly in the region. These Kingdoms will govern the region for a millennium, successively interrupted by numerous invasions. Sacred sites mentioned and the four holy cities of Judaism, each associated with four elements (Jerusalem – fire, Hebron – earth, Safed – air, Tiberias – water) 10 , are located in the Land of Israel.
The end of the province of Judea at the end of the Mamluk on Palestine
Between the period of Israelite kingdoms and the Muslim conquest in the vii th century AD, the Land of Israel fell to successive Assyrians , Babylonians , Persians , Greeks , Romans , Sassanids and Byzantines . However, the population, mostly Jewish, begin to decline after the war against the Roman Empire during the First Jewish-Roman War , between 66 and 73 AD , then the Jewish-Roman War ( War of Kitos ) 11 and the Bar Kokhba Revolt in 132 AD , which will cause the forced exile of a majority and the new name of the region in the province of Syria-Palestine , and later , Palestine , in an attempt to clear the link between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel 12 . In 628 – 629 AD , a Jewish revolt against the Byzantine emperor Heraclius lead to a mass murder and total expulsion of Jews from the region. The Jewish population of the region is greatly reduced and probably reached its lowest point. However, a minority Jewish presence was maintained continuously.
The center of the Jewish population shifted from Judea (Jerusalem area and south of Jerusalem) in Galilee (region of Galilee ) from the i st century , following the Roman occupation of Jerusalem. The Mishnah and parts of the Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud , which, apart from the Torah , the most important texts of Judaism, were composed in Israel during this period. In 636 AD , the Land of Israel was taken by the Arab Muslims. The control of the region fell to the Umayyad and the Abbasids. The region was ruled by the time the Crusaders , mainly francs, from 1099 to 1260 , when the region fell to the Mamluks .
The period of Ottoman rule
In 1516 , during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Land of Israel (called Filistin Sancağı , Sancak of Palestine at that time) became part of the Ottoman Empire , which ruled the region until the early xx th century , with the exception of the brief invasion of French troops of Napoleon, which some say he envisaged the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine under French protection 13 . The end of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War, placed the region under administration (1917) and then British mandate (1922) after approval by the League of Nations . Although very difficult to estimate, the population of the entire region of Palestine would amount to around 400 000 inhabitants in the xix th century , including 100 000 to 200 000, according to sources at the time (Turkish census demographers and contemporary), within the boundaries of the future state of Israel in 1893 14 , approximately between 4 and 9 inhabitants per km 2 against 357 inhabitants per km 2 in 2009 [ ref. desired] .
Peters Cuinet Turkish census
92 000 inhabitants 186 000 inhabitants 198 000 inhabitants
The British Mandate
Jewish auxiliary police during the British Mandate.
In 1917, the British took control of Palestine after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire during WWI .
In keeping with the promise made by Lord chiropractic marketing Balfour to Chaim Weizmann , they get to the Conference of Sanremo the establishment of a British mandate over the region which will aim, inter alia, the establishment of a “Jewish homeland” in Palestine according to the aspirations of the Zionist movement .
Main article: Mandatory Palestine .
The UN vote on partition plan for Palestine
Main article: Partition Plan for Palestine .
A first vote was held on 25 November 1947 . It does lack a voice for that sharing is accepted. Then, on 29 the same month, the United Nations ( UN ) vote the Partition Plan in two states, one Jewish and one Arab. Thirty-three countries voted “for” thirteen “cons”, and ten refrain 15 . The next day, the civil war broke out in Palestine .
Independence of the State of Israel
The Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel.
The Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel is playing the 14 May 1948 on the last day of the British Mandate, the president of the Jewish Agency , David Ben Gurion , who became the first Prime Minister of the new state.
Neighboring Arab countries immediately declared war he invaded Palestine and the same day. Israel faces the armies of four Arab 16 in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 . During short periods of fighting interspersed with truces, Israel expanded the territory under its control. In 1949, several truces are signed between Israel and its neighbors. To begin with Egypt, 12 February 1949 which occupies the Gaza Strip , Lebanon on 23 March 1949 on the blue line , Jordan on 3 April 1949 which annexed the West Bank and eastern Jerusalem who arranges a land swap with Israel to achieve the current borders called the green line and then Syria, 20 July 1949 .
Main article: Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949 .
Arab refugees and Jewish refugees
The war of independence, to which historians refer to as Palestine war of 1948 is accompanied by the exodus of some 725,000 Arab Palestinians, half fleeing war conditions and for the other half were forcibly expelled by Israeli forces 17 .
In the years following the creation of Israel, 900,000 Jewish refugees from Arab countries were expelled or fled from Arab countries. Among them, 600,000 took refuge in Israel 18 .
Developments of the country’s borders
The country’s borders have changed significantly since the partition plan for Palestine in 1947 at the option of Arab-Israeli wars , truces and treaties of peace.
Some resolutions of the UN have been crucial for Israel, including the Resolution 181 19 which specifically supports the establishment of a Jewish state, then the Security Council resolutions 242 of 22 November 1967 , following the Six Day War and 338 of 22 October 1973 the Security Council , which proposed a framework for settling the Arab-Israeli conflict .
Israeli foreign policy
Countries do not recognize the State of Israel
To date, most of the world, with the exception of most of those in the Arab-Muslim world, recognized Israel as a state. This recognition occurred in the days following the declaration of independence, May 14, 1948, and when Israel was admitted to the UN .
All states of the Arab-Muslim voted against the partition plan of 1947. Since only the Egypt (in 1982), the Palestinian Authority (1993) 20 , 21 , of Jordan (1994) 22 and Mauritania (1999) 23 have recognized the State of Israel.
The Syria , the Iran after the Islamic Revolution and political groups such as Hamas or Hezbollah do not recognize the existence or legitimacy of Israel and is designated as an ” Zionist entity “and officially refuse any contact with him.
Mauritania broke off diplomatic ties with Israel in March 2009 following the Gaza War 24 .
Other Muslim countries, Turkey has diplomatic relations with Israel. Israel also maintained good diplomatic relations with Iran before the Islamic Revolution of 1979.
Three countries in Latin America broke their diplomatic relations with Israel: Bolivia and Venezuela following the steep Israeli on Gaza in 2009 25 . and Nicaragua in 2010 26 , following the attack of Israeli armed forces on peace flotilla to Gaza .
Main article: Politics of Israel .
The Knesset is Israel’s parliament located in Jerusalem .
Israel is a republic parliamentary multiparty and democratic liberal who adopted universal suffrage .
The only room of its Parliament is the Knesset , whose 120 members serve in Jerusalem and is renewed every four years .
The head of state is the president of Israel , which has an essentially honorary position. It means the Prime Minister in the party or majority coalition in the Knesset so that it forms its government.
Israel has no constitution written but is based on the principles of the Declaration of Independence of 1948 and the 14 laws fundamental adopted by the Knesset. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Israel. Judgments are made by professional judges laity. Religious courts handle specific confession matrimonial matters.
Israel is not a member of the International Criminal Court : the Rome Statute , which created that institution, was signed by the Israeli Government on 31 December 2000 , but has not been ratified by the Knesset.
Main articles: Economy of Israel and Israeli companies list .
The city of Tel Aviv (more than 3 million inhabitants) is the country’s economic hub and heart of ” Silicon Valley “Israeli.
This country is noted for its rich cultural life, its industrially and technologically advanced economy, and its level of development that is at the 22 th largest in the world according to the Human Development Index of the UN (2008 value 27 ) or the first highest in the Middle East and third in Asia .
The Israeli economy is a capitalist country with a modern young and is characterized by a relatively large public sector and a sector of high-tech growing rapidly for over ten years. The country’s limited natural resources and highly educated Israelis have favored the development of advanced technologies. The Israeli companies , mainly in this area are highly valued on world financial markets. Israel is the third largest number of listed companies at NASDAQ ( 98 firms listed) after the United States and China ( 116 companies listed) and received large foreign investments 28 . The country has the largest number of start-ups in the world and its spending on research and development are considerable. However, despite the good economic development, 11% of the population live on rations distributed by non-governmental organizations, according to the Integrated Regional Information Networks ( IRIN ) of the UN 29 .
The Azrieli Towers in Tel Aviv center.
Israeli contributions to science are significant in medicine, physics and agriculture and more particularly in genetics, computing, electronics and optics. The Nobel Prize in science and economics were awarded to four Israelis since 2002 . Israel is in 6 th place worldwide in terms of contribution in terms of Nobel Prizes per capita 30 . The number of scientific publications per capita ( 109 publications by 10 000 persons ) 31 and patents per capita is among the highest in the world.
Israel tops the world rankings in terms of annual expenditures for research and development with a rate of 4.7% of GDP 32 . The funding of this research are mainly from private unlike other developed countries.
In 2010, Israel has officially joined the OECD in light of progress and economic reforms carried out 33 .
Israel has immense natural gas resources, including the recent discovery and exploitation is planned from 2013. These resources are likely to turn Israel into gas exporter, which is likely to have important consequences on the economy 34 .
Main article: Geography of Israel .
Photo by satellite – Israel in January 2003 .
Coastal plain near Mount Carmel .
Israel is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, bordered to the north by Lebanon , to the northeast by Syria , east by the West Bank and Jordan and to the southwest by Egypt and the Gaza Strip .
Gulf of Eilat .
Natural arch in the Galilee .
The Judean hills around Jerusalem.
The Ramon Crater in the desert of Negev .
The territory of Israel (excluding the areas occupied West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights), covers about 20 770 km 2 , of which about 2% are occupied by lakes. The territory under Israeli jurisdiction, including all of Jerusalem and the hills of the Golan reached 22 072 km 2 . The total area under Israeli control or direct part, which also includes the Palestinian territories of West Bank and exclude Gaza , measuring a total of 27 799 km 2 .
Despite its relatively small size, Israel gathers geographical specificities varied from deserts of the Negev in the south to the slopes and hills of Galilee and the Golan in the north. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean hosts about 70% of the total population. To the east of the central hills of Samaria flows the Jordan River that starts from the Sea of Galilee to the north farther south in the Dead Sea , the lowest point on Earth, located southeast of Jerusalem. Further south of this sea salt saturated, the valley of the Arabah or Haarava in dry, arid climate, extends to the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea , an important refuge for aquatic life due to the presence of many reefs and corals.
There are unique features to Israel and the peninsula of Sinai , it is the ” Makhteshim “or craters created by erosion. The largest Makhtesh the world is the crater of Ramon in the Negev which measures 40 km long and 8 km wide. A recent environmental report [Which?] on the Mediterranean indicates that Israel has the largest variety of plant species recorded per square kilometer of all Mediterranean countries. [ ref. desired]
The climate of coastal areas can be very different from the mountainous areas of the country, especially during the winter months. Areas of Tel Aviv and Haifa have a typical Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters and hot, humid summers. The mountains to the north are often against the snowy winter, and Jerusalem may also experience snowfall.
The highest temperature of the Asian continent ( 53.7 ° C ) was reached in 1942 at Kibbutz (village associations) of Tirat Zvi north of the Jordan [ ref. desired] . From May to September, the rainy days are relatively rare. Low water resources of the State of Israel forced him to take early measures to promote technologies that limit water consumption 35 . Israel produces an increasing portion of its water by processes of desalination . The strong sunlight has also favored Bankruptcy the establishment of technology incubators on solar, placing Israel among the nations most advanced in this area, both per capita consumption by technological development in this area 36 , 37 . A project of the highest solar power station worldwide is currently contemplated in the Negev [ ref. desired] .
Capital of Israel
Wailing Wall , symbol of Judaism in Jerusalem.
The designation by the Israeli law in Jerusalem as the capital is currently contested by almost all of the international community. This position dates from the early history of Israel, in 1949 when Israel decides that its capital is the western part of Jerusalem 38 and installed the government and the Knesset . The international community does not accept this fact does not take into account the recommendations of the UN and embassies are in Tel Aviv accordingly or even in other cities (until 1973, however, there was in Jerusalem some African embassies and sat there until 1980 as 13 embassies of countries of Latin America and the Netherlands). The proclamation of Jerusalem as the united capital, following the Six Day War , is no longer accepted for annexation is not recognized by the international community. The designation of Jerusalem or Tel Aviv as the capital has been the subject of media controversies 39 .
Position of international institutions
The main international agencies (including UN 40 ) do not recognize any capital for Israel. The resolution 478 the Security Council UN declares “void “the fundamental law adopted by the Israeli state defines Jerusalem undivided and eternal capital 41 .
Position of the various states and national organizations
Germany : Germany notes that Israel considers Jerusalem as its capital but is also a non-recognition of this fact by the international community 42 .
Canada : no capital set 43 .
China : no capital defined 44
Denmark : no capital set 45 .
Spain : no capital defined 46
U.S. : Jerusalem 47 .
France : The French position clear: “The State of Israel has established its capital in Jerusalem, despite the absence of international agreement on the status of this city 48 . ” The French embassy is nevertheless remained based in Tel Aviv.
India : India’s position clear: “Jerusalem, proclaimed as Israel’s undivided capital, but this has not received international acceptance 49 . ”
UK : The British position clear: “Israel maintains that Jerusalem is its capital, a claim not recognized by the international community 50 . ”
Switzerland : cite the two cities (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv) as capitals 51
PLO 52 : The PLO says Israel has no right to Jerusalem ( ” The Israeli claim to Sovereignty over Jerusalem Has No substance. ” ) which it seeks as the capital of Palestine.
European Union : December 8, 2009, the EU calls on Israel to share Jerusalem as the capital of two states joint Palestinian and Hebrew. The bloc insist they “do not recognize any change other than negotiated” status pre-1967 53 . A confidential report of the European Union dated December 15, 2008 54 , accuses Israel of using the development of colonization, the construction of the separation wall, the planning of roads, the establishment of the system of residence permits and displacement imposed on Palestinians to “actively pursue the illegal annexation of East Jerusalem 55 , 56 . ”
The State of Israel is divided into six districts which are themselves divided into 15 sub-districts , including 50 regions natural 57 .
Since its independence, Israel has planted a total of over 240 million trees and 4% of its area is now wooded which made Israel one of only two states to have more trees at the turn of the xxi th century at the beginning of xx th century ( 3500 acres of forest in 1901 against 213,000 acres in 2009) 58 , 59 .
Main article: Borders of Israel .
Israel shares its borders with Plastic Containers Lebanon in the north with Syria in the North East, the Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and with Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest. It has a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the Gulf of Aqaba in the south.
Israel’s borders are not defined and recognized by the entire international community. They have evolved during its existence and are challenged by some countries. Their historical development, international law, the political and historical claims about them is a complex and controversial. Generally, the internationally recognized borders, however, are those that follow the lines of cease-fire in the 1948 war also called, “1967 borders”, that is to say, before the war of the six days .
Israel conquered more territories of its neighbors. During the 1948 war, it extends its boundaries beyond the limits of the partition plan. During the 1967 war, she conquered the Gaza Strip, the Sinai and the Golan Heights. Since the evacuation of the Sinai in 1981 and Gaza in 2005, Israel still occupies the West Bank and East Jerusalem, claimed for the creation of a Palestinian state, the Golan Heights of Syria and the Shebaa Farms (claimed since 2000 60 by Lebanon but also part of the Golan Heights). East Jerusalem and the Golan, however, were annexed by Israel in 1980 and 1981 respectively without this annexation was recognized.
The Resolution 242 the UN does not explicitly withdraw from the occupied territories in its English version ( ” withdraws from Occupied Territories ” ) but required in the French version (“withdrawal from occupied territories”).
Main article: IDF .
Merkava Mk-4 tank .
Class Sa’ar V , Israeli Navy .
The Israeli army, known by its Hebrew acronym IDF (for SVAT LeIsrael Haganah , Israel Defense Force) was formed in May 1948 , replacing the former armed organizations whose principal was the Haganah . It now includes all the army corps whose Air Force , Navy and Secret Service ( Mossad and Shabak ). The arming of Israel is highly sophisticated and developed largely in Israel by companies such as Elbit Systems and Israeli Military Industries (IMI). The series of tanks Merkava whose latest is the Merkava MK-4, is mainly developed and produced in Israel. The armament is sometimes imported from the United States in particular. IDF has about 750 aircraft hunting, most of which are F-15 and F-16 and plans to purchase F-35 . [ref. required]
In 2008, Israel became the 4 th largest arms exporter in the world behind the United States, China and France. It exports mainly electronics and high tech military equipment: drones, satellites and radars, primarily, its industries which have made a specialty of a very competitive market. End of Denver Divorce Lawyer 2008, exports reached 6.3 billion dollars, in constant progression 61 . Arms imports remained at 2.5 – 3 billion dollars for several years [when?] . The budget of the Israeli army is the 4 th of the Near East (behind Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Turkey). It reached 13.3 billion dollars (late 2008) 62 .
Most Israelis are called at the age of 18 years to serve in the army ( three years for men, 2 years for women). Are exempt: the Israeli Arabs (to avoid possible conflicts of interest) and Haredi Jews who have a suspended military renewable every six months if they prove they study Torah full time. For the Haredim , the constraints of the stay preventing them from leaving the country more than once a year for a period of 30 days , and work legally if only part time. Obtaining this suspension by the young students of Torah was one of the conditions of religious status quo granted by Ben Gurion and held until 1980 . [ ref. desired]
The NATO and the Israeli army regularly participate in exercises and maneuvers common to adopt NATO standards and test integration.
Israel has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons . The official Israeli position has always been not to confirm nor deny speculation about its possession of nuclear weapons. However, on Monday 11 December 2006 , during an interview with German television channel N24 about Iran’s nuclear ambitions, Ehud Olmert said: “Could you say it’s the same thing for America, the France, Israel and Russia 63 ? ” . Earlier, on 6 December 2006 , Robert Gates , the new Secretary of State for Defence when he told U.S. Senate hearing: “Iran is surrounded by countries with nuclear weapons: Pakistan to the east, Israel to the west … ” . These two statements led to a denial of Ehud Olmert, referring to Israel’s position on the subject: “Israel will not be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East. That was our position, that is our position, it will remain our position 64 . ”
IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozer shielded.
IWI Tavor CTAR-21.
Propelled gun M-109 .
Click on a thumbnail to enlarge
Multilingual road signs in Hebrew , Arabic and Latin characters in Israel.
Main article: Demographics of Israel .
Israel has a population of 7,619,600 inhabitants at 30 June 2010 , including 76% of Jews ( 5,750,900 inhabitants ) and 20% of Israeli Arabs ( 1,555,300 inhabitants ) (mostly Muslim, but also a Christian minority) which must be added 313,500 new immigrants who are registered with the Ministry of Interior as “non-Jews “and which constitute 4% of the Israeli population. Foreign workers who live in Israel are not included in these data and are estimated at 150 000 65 , 66 .
The Israeli population is growing steadily at an annual rate of 1.8% / year for several years placing it well above the growth rate of U.S. or European 67 .
Israel is the only country with a Jewish majority. The Jewish population of Israel is from the world: there are the ” sabra “(Israeli-born, recent immigrant parents or whose family had lived for centuries in Palestine ) of recent immigrants who made their aliyah (“ascent ” , that is to say back: a large part comes from the former USSR, but also from France, the United States, of Argentina , etc.. ).
Israel also includes Druze Arab-speaking, a community circus and a very small community Armenian . Unlike the vast majority of Israeli Arabs , Druze and Circassians have chosen not to be exempted from military service 68 , 69 ; it should be noted that many Arab Bedouins best auto insurance 69 and some other Arab Christians 70 Muslims and even 71 , are as volunteers in the regular army .
Main article: Religion in Israel and the occupied territories .
New immigrants arriving in Israel in 2005 , There are 22,500, against 22,000 the previous year . Of these, 9,300 came from the former countries of the Soviet Union , 3700 from Ethiopia , 3,000 from France , and 2600 of the United States .
Urban and rural distribution of population
Tel Aviv , the Israeli metropolis.
45% of Israel’s population resides in cities of over 100,000 inhabitants , or 3.1 million people 72 .
In 2010 there were six cities of over 200,000 inhabitants 72 . More than a quarter of the country’s population resides in these cities:
Jerusalem with 773 000 inhabitants against 84 000 in 1948 ;
Tel Aviv – the heart of a auto transport rapidly growing metropolis totaling over 3.3 million inhabitants, Tel Aviv has 403,700 inhabitants , representing 5% of the overall population of Israel;
Haifa – the third largest city, with 265,600 inhabitants against 98 600 in 1948. Like Tel Aviv, the metropolitan area is experiencing significant growth, being over 1 million inhabitants;
Rishon Lezion – the fourth largest city with over 228,200 inhabitants ( 2009 ), whereas it comprised 11 000 during the creation of the State of Israel;
Petah Tikva – a town in the eastern suburbs of Tel Aviv, it now has 209,600 inhabitants . It is the headquarters of pharmaceutical company Teva , leader worldwide in the field of generic
Ashdod – Port city in a very strong development south of Tel Aviv 206 400 inhabitants .
Eight other Israeli cities have populations between 100 000 inhabitants and 200 000 inhabitants . The majority of them are peripheral localities of Tel Aviv 73 , 72 :
Beersheba , the southern capital of Israel employs 194,300 people in late 2009. It is the nucleus of a city of over half a million inhabitants.
Holon : 184 700 inhabitants
Netanya : 183 200 inhabitants
Bnei Brak : 154 400 inhabitants
Ramat Gan : 145 000 inhabitants
Bat Yam : 130 000 inhabitants
Rehovot : 112 700 inhabitants
Ashkelon : 111 900 inhabitants .
The rural population is 571,600 people of the entire Israeli population (8%). Among them, 118,000 people live in kibbutzim , or 2% of the population, whereas they accounted for 6% of it in 1948. Growth is very clear in recent years. [ ref. desired]
Geographical distribution of the population
Israel is divided into six districts, 67 (in Hebrew: Mehoz מחוז , plural: mehozot מחוזות ):
and (A) Note 2 Northern District : 1,248,000 inhabitants
District of Haifa : 884 000 inhabitants
Middle District : 1,786,900 inhabitants
Tel Aviv District : 1,233,400 inhabitants
Jerusalem District : 918 300 inhabitants
Southern District : 1,060,000 inhabitants
Many Israelis also live in West Bank
(B) Note 3 Judea and Samaria : 296 400 inhabitants
Languages and Culture
srael ( Hebrew : יִשְׂרָאֵל , Yisra’el , Arabic : إسرائيل , Isra’il ), officially State of Israel ,  is a state in the Middle East, in Asia , on the shore of the Mediterranean and Red Sea and the country’s border with Lebanon in the north, Syria in northeast, Jordan in the east and Egypt to the southwest. Also adjacent are the West Bank to the east and the Gaza Strip to the southwest. With a invånartal of about 7.28 million people, most of whom are Jews , Israel is the world’s only Jewish country. In the land of living are also many other ethnic groups, including a large number of Arab citizens , like many religious groups, including Muslims , Christians , Druze , Samaritans and others. Jews are a people originating in the Near East ( Southwest Asia ).  1400 BC ruled Jerusalem of Egypt . 1000 BC Jerusalem was conquered by King David, and made it the capital of a united Jewish kingdom.  The 100-second century AD nedkämpades the Jewish population in Palestine is definitely by the Romans. In 636 the Arabs became the country’s men and 1577 it was incorporated with the Turkish rule. After Turkey’s collapse in World War I gave the League of Nations Palestine to Britain . 
The modern state of Israel has its roots in the historic Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל, Eretz Yisrael ), a concept central to Judaism since ancient times, and Chicago Criminal Attorney the heart of the ancient Kingdom of Judah , which modern Jews commonly referred to. Other names for the region, including Canaan, Palestine and illinois dui lawyer the Holy Land. In the 1400s BC, was conquered Canaan by the Judah tribe, according to the Old Testament since Moses have emigrated from Egypt , where Jews had lived for centuries-old oppression. 
After World War II approved the League of Nations, the British Mandate in Palestine with the intent to create a “national home for the Jewish people.” In 1947 the UN approved the partition of Palestine into two states, a jew and an Arab. On May 14th 1948 declared itself an independent state of Israel, which was followed by war with neighboring Arab states, who refused to accept the plan. The Israelis were subsequently victorious in a series of wars confirming their independence and expanding the Jewish state’s borders beyond those of the UN partition plan. Since then, Israel has been in conflict with Palestine’s Arab population and many of the surrounding Arab countries, which has resulted in several major wars and decades of violence that continues to this day. Since its formation, Israel’s borders and the state’s right to exist was the subject of dispute, especially among its Arab neighbors and their many Palestinian refugees . Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, but efforts for a lasting peace with the Palestinians have so far been inconclusive.
Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system and universal suffrage . The prime minister serves as head of government and the Knesset is Israel’s legislative body. In the case of nominal gross domestic product , estimated the nation’s economy as the 44th largest in the world. Israel ranks highest among the countries in the Middle East in terms of prosperity, freedom of the press, and economic competitiveness. Jerusalem is the nation ‘s capital , largest city and seat of government, and even the holiest city of the world’s Jews and Christians . It also counts as the third holiest city in Islam . United Nations and most countries in the world does not accept Jerusalem as Israel’s capital city , but have their consulates in cities like Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, and Herzliya.  The Palestinian Authority sees East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state and the city’s final status is unclear and awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority ( Negotiating Jerusalem, University of Maryland ). Israel’s main financial center is Tel Aviv .
Contents [ hide ]
Main article: Israel’s history
The modern state of Israel’s history begins in the late 1800s when Theodor Herzl gives renewed strength to the Zionist movement. The movement grew notably by Herzl’s ideas stronger and in 1917 issued the England Balfour Declaration of giving the Jewish people a homeland in the land which they were expelled from after the so-called bar-Koch Bare Voltage 132 – 135 , when Jews were forbidden to live in Jerusalem and in a radius of about 50 kilometers from the city. After Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire in the early 300′s, it was once possible for Jews to move back to their homeland and ever since has there been a jew minority residents in the ancient Jewish capital.
Since the Israeli government establishment years 1948 , its existence was marked by conflicts with parts of the Arab world and with Palestinians in and outside Israel. These conflicts are in part due to the breakdown of the Middle East as England and France agreed in the First World War final stage in the context of the Ottoman Empire collapsed. England , who wanted to protect boat traffic through the Suez Canal , then took control of Palestine (now Israel, West Bank and present Jordan ) and Egypt , while France took over what is today Syria and Lebanon . The Jewish immigration before and during World War II limited, largely because the British government’s negative attitude. The Jews who were building settlements on land they bought from local landowners. When the growing anti-Semitism in Europe culminated in the Holocaust increased the influx of Jews into Palestine considerably despite British opposition.
War of Independence in 1948
David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel
Feature story: the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
After the UN General Assembly (UNGA 181) voted to split the British Mandatory Palestine in a jew and an Arab part, they began to Palestinian and other irregular Arab forces a war against the Jewish cities and towns. (Palestine conflict, 1994, Student Literature by Professor Sune Persson). State of Israel was proclaimed by David Ben-Gurion on May 14 1948 , the day of the British troops left the area and after the British mandate in Palestine expired. The surrounding Arab states, which together with the Palestinians had been against the UN’s decision to split the British mandate in a jew and an Arab part, declared war with the newly created state. After heavy fighting the IDF succeeded the Haganah to fight back and conquered even areas that would accrue to Israel as sharing decision. Jerusalem, which the UN would be an international area became a divided city. The old city including Temple Mount , holy to both Jews and Muslims, came under Jordanian control. The war had a major impact on how the new state of Israel’s borders, in the form of arrest lines were run for denver injury lawyer 19 years, until the Six Day War in 1967 . The war was a refugee crisis. Approximately 700 000 Arabs were expelled or fled from martial arts denver the areas that would form of Israel, they gathered in camps in the areas controlled by the Arab states that fought against Israel: the Gaza Strip , the West Bank and southern Lebanon. All Jews were expelled or fled from East Jerusalem, Gaza and West Bank. Jews were expelled also from the surrounding Arab states and some 800 000 Jews fled to Israel.
The armistice concluded in 1949 meant that the Storage Bins Gaza Strip and West Bank came under Egyptian and Jordanian control. Any peace agreement was not signed, the state of Israel was not recognized by its neighbors, but the armistice lines were negotiated, and minor boundary adjustments were carried out along the front lines against Jordan and the Gaza Strip. Any Palestinian state proclaimed never.
Suez Crisis in 1956
Main article: Suez Crisis
Suez crisis began when Israel and the two western European powers France and Britain began a collaboration. Europeans’ goal was to regain control of the Suez Canal , which was extremely important to their trade . Israel claimed to have safety and security reasons, when Egypt started to receive Czech arms shipments and since Israel’s creation blocked Tiranasundet and the Suez Canal to the country’s shipping. Additionally hoped Israel could curb fedajinverksamheten from Gaza and Sinai .
The fighting began with a quick Israeli invasion of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula and then proceeded on to the Suez Canal. Britain and France helped with aerial bombardment of Egyptian bases. The war came to an abrupt end after strong pressure particularly from the United States , but also by the other superpower, the Soviet Union , also criticized France and Britain strongly by the United Nations who evacuated the Canal Zone. United States inflicted upon Israel, too, for the very strong pressure to return the Sinai Peninsula. Under the condition of Sinai demilitariserades and that an international UN force was located in Gaza to prevent new outbreaks of fedajin , returned the Sinai and Gaza Strip to Egypt.
Six-Day War / June War of 1967
Main article: Six-Day War
The Arab states continued to attack Israel in the 1960s, when the Soviet Union and its allies supplying arms to Egypt and Jordan, while Britain, France and the U.S. did the same to Israel. In a surprise maneuver Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran and moved troops to the Sinai (and thus broke the agreement on the demilitarization of the Sinai, and also sent home the UN observers). When it became clear that the Arab armies had gathered at the borders of Israel did the country ready for battle. Under the leadership of General Moshe Dayan, Israel made an attack and defeated the Arab armies in six days, and cemented Israel’s military superiority in the Middle East. Six-Day War had the effect of a large number of Palestinians fled to Jordan and lost control of the West Bank and Egypt lost the Gaza Strip.
The war is called by Israel the Six Day War, and from the Palestinian side that the June War.
It is a result of this war that Israel occupies the West Bank. According to the UN Security Council Resolution 242, it is “forbidden to acquire land through war.” This will allow the continued occupation of the West Bank is illegal under the UN.
October War 1973
Main article: October War
In 1973 completed Egypt and Syria, a surprise attack against Israel in order to reclaim the Sinai and Golan Heights . The attacking forces were initially successful, but was finally suspended. Before the war ended managed the Israel Defense Force, led by Ariel Sharon , cross the Suez Canal on its way to Cairo , when they were forced to a halt after U.S. pressure. In the north, the Israelis withdrew after very heavy fighting, two mil wide Golan crest and then proceeded towards Damascus . The war, which became known as the October War or Yom Kippur War , was a vital link in the chain of events that caused the 1973 oil crisis .
Lebanon in 1978 and 1982
See also Civil War in Lebanon .
After several clashes between Israeli troops and Palestinian guerrillas in Lebanon, Israel occupied in March 1978 area up to the Litani River , excluding the city of Tyre . After the UN adopted Resolution 425 which demanded an Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, Israel left the area.
In 1982 Israel again invaded Lebanon, on the grounds that they wanted to put an end to rocket attacks by Israel at the hands of militant Palestinian groups and the ongoing civil war in Lebanon. The massacre in the Sabra and Shatila took place during this time with Defense Minister Ariel Sharon’s approval. He was convicted for that of the Israeli government Kahankommissionen. PLO was expelled to Tunisia . 1985 left Israel part of Lebanon but maintained long as a security zone in the southern part of Lebanon with the local Christian Home Guard, South Lebanon Army . Israel claimed that it was necessary to protect the northern part of the country. Finally in 2000 Israel withdrew from southern Lebanon. According to the then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and the UN Security Council , Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon is complete and in accordance with Resolution 425   Shebaaområdet , which Israel took over the custom t shirts Six Day War, is considered by the UN belong to Syria, Syria, for its part expressed that the Lebanese demands in this area is warranted. 
Main article: Israel-Palestinian conflict
Israel since the Six Day War in 1967 occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip and annexed the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem . Gaza was evacuated in 2007 but Israel maintains a blockade that prevents the free movement and EU as well as the UN and others regard the Gaza Strip as part of Israel still occupied territory. 
The first intifada
Main article: First Intifada
The first Palestinian uprising ( intifada ) against Israeli occupation erupted in 1987 . This led to the Oslo Accords in 1993 when the PLO after negotiations accepted a two-state solution based on 1967 borders , and was ordered to establish a Palestinian Authority in Gaza and the West Bank . Israel, for its part recognized by the Oslo agreements the PLO, not Palestine.
The second intifada
Main article: Al-Aqsa Intifada
The second Palestinian uprising, known as Al-Aqsa Intifada, began in 2000 after the Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount where the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock is (holy places for Jews and Muslims) on 28 September. According to Arab claims were considered Sharon’s visit as a provocation, because he brought with him a thousand armed police into the sacred area. These claims, however, rejects the majority of Arab sources as saying that the “Al Aqsa” intifada was planned long before Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount.  After Friday prayers the day after the visit there was rioting in the streets of Old Jerusalem where at least 5 people killed by Israeli security forces, 200 people were injured when Palestinians threw stones at Jews praying and tourists at the Wailing Wall . 70 policemen were also injured in the clash (Source: Amnesty International ). Since the Intifada began during the period September 29, 2000 – 26 December 2008, according to B’tselem 4907 Palestinians killed by Israelis and 1062 Israelis killed by Palestinians. Current and detailed figures and the names of the victims: http://www.btselem.org/english/Statistics/Casualties.asp
Operation Summer Rain Buy Phen375 and Lebanon War 2006
Main article: Lebanon War 2006
On June 28 2006, Israel launched an offensive in the Gaza Strip known as Operation Summer Rain .
Relations between Lebanon and Israel have long been tense. Israel never left Lebanon altogether, although it is mostly retired years in 2000 . Hezbollah from southern Lebanon have been attacked military targets in Sheebaområdet and northern Israel, and Israel’s military has fired upon, inter alia, Hezbollah’s positions on the Lebanese territory. The conflict escalated in July and August 2006 into something that looked like full-scale war after Hezbollah killed three Israeli soldiers and captured two near the Lebanese-Israeli border. Israel responded with flygbomb translation and land attacks on Lebanon. Israeli navy carried out a coastal blockade of the country. Infrastructure as Beirut International Airport, its western motorway link to Syria and hundreds of homes, primarily in southern Beirut were destroyed. Hezbollah attacked northern Israel with rockets Katjusja .
Gaza War 2008-2009
Main article: The conflict in the Gaza Strip, 2008-2009
On 27 December 2008, Israel launched Operation Cast Lead against the Gaza Strip. The attack began with air strikes and continued with ground troops. According to the government of Israel was the cause of the military offensive that Chrome Wire Shelving Israeli towns and villages shot up by about 10 000 pcs Qassam rockets over the past eight years. A United Nations report ( Goldstone ) accused Israel of committing war crimes . The attack was considered to be directed at Gaza’s population as a whole and be part of a policy which was to punish the inhabitants of Gaza. Richard Goldstone was subsequently away from the report when the facts were investigated and then Hamas eg admitted that they made false statements 
Israel borders Lebanon in the north, Syria and Jordan in the east, and Egypt in the southwest. The country has a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the Gulf of Aqaba in the south.
During the Six Day War in 1967 Israel occupied the West Bank that had previously controlled by Jordan, the Golan Heights belonging to Syria and the Gaza Strip and Sinai as ruled by Egypt. 1982 Israel pulled back its troops and depopulated settlements in the Sinai peninsula and in 2005 from the Gaza Strip. West Bank and Gaza Strip future fate remains unclear. East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights have obeyed under Israeli law since 1967  and 1981, although not formally been annexed.
Israel’s surface excluding the areas that were taken in 1967 is 20 770 square kilometers, of which one percent is water. If one includes East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights is the surface of 22 145 square kilometers.
Israel has a very diverse climate, if you compare the coastal areas with mountainous areas, especially during the winter months. The northern mountains can be cold, wet and often snowy and even Jerusalem experiences snow every now and then. Coastal areas such as urban Tel Aviv and Haifa, have typical Mediterranean climate with cool wet winters and hot dry summers.
Israel Bureau of Statistics defines three metropolitan areas, Tel Aviv (3.0404 million inhabitants), Haifa (996 000 people) and Be’er Sheva (531 600 inhabitants).  Jerusalem has a population of 719 000 inhabitants.